The Science

BCI

A Brain-Computer interface or BCI is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and anexternal device. These can be invasive in the form of electrodes implanted directly on the brain or non-invasive through an EEG for example, that reads the electrical brain waves on our scalp that are translated into commands that an external hardware and software executes.

BCI can be used for a variety of things, such as helping people with physical disabilities to adapt better through the use of a robotic hand controlled by the mind for example, or use BCI in gaming to execute different commands, or to control other external hardware, like a drone. Apart from these examples, the technology allows for many applications in different fields the have not yet been explored.


Portable EEG

One recent development in BCI has been the creation of portable EEG devices that connect to a computer, tablet or smartphone through Bluetooth such as the one seen in the previous video, that can really expand the development of applications given this connectivity, but also the low cost and non-invasiveness qualities of the device. The new portable devices typically have fewer electrodes, but have the advantage of rapid setting, without the need to use gels and be on a lab, are much cheaper, they can be used in different settings and connect wirelessly to a computer device for example.


How it works

One of the basic elements of brain functioning lies in the synapse. This is the point where electrical signals from one neuron generate electrical effects in another. The initiation of an action potential, for example, that which allows transmitting nerve impulses, and which is the basis of brain functioning at the level of the neuron, requires the opening of sodium ion channels in the mound of the axon of the neuron. At this level, the phenomena depend on physical and chemical properties and on the characteristics of the biological structures at play. To unleash an action potential, a certain trigger threshold must be overcome thanks to the action of graduated potentials that are added temporally and spatially, provided by the connections with other neurons. In order for activity to occur in the latter, the same phenomena must occur.


Portable EEG devices exploit this electrical property of the brain. Neurons signal electrically. The potential (voltage) across their cell membranes changes, when channels in the membrane open and ions move down their electrochemical gradients. EEG is a monitoring method which records electrical activity of the brain, in a noninvasive, with electrodes placed along the scalp.


Associated to the use of EEG, we have event-related potentials which investigate potential fluctuations time locked to an event like stimulus onset or button press. Also, spectral content of EEG: analyses the type of neural oscillations (popularly called “brain waves”) that can be observed in EEG signals in the frequency domain. Working with this type of information requires different signal processing techniques, like Autoregressive, Fourier Transform, Common Spatial Filters, Laplacian Filter, Wavelets, among others


What we are doing

Working with an extensive and constantly updated database of peer-reviewed papers in the area, we manage to put the most recent finding in neuroscience to the test, building practical tools for professionals. Additionally to brain waves, event-related potential and “graph elements” of interest, we are developing complex data analysis and integration of machine learning tools to add grater predictive power and accurately differentiate mental and cognitive states. This allows us to build the different products we are working on.


Find out about some of the research

As a neurotechnology company, we keep up to date with the latest advances and finding in the area. Here you can review some of the most recent papers in the field as well as complex reviews. The themes include: advances in BCI, portable EEG applications and new findings, Neurofeedback, data analysis methods and machine learning applied to EEG, diagnostics and treatment applications and mind-controlled uses.


BCI

Achieving remote presence using a humanoid robot controlled by a non-invasive BCI device

A short review and primer on event-related potentials in human computer interaction applications

Brain-Computer Interface Based on Generation of Visual Images

Brain–Computer Interface Technologies in the Coming Decades

Brain–Computer Interfaces: A Gentle Introduction

Brain-Computer Interfaces by Electrical Cortex Activity: Challenges in Creating a Cognitive System for Mobile Devices Using Steady-State Visually Evoked Potentials

Classification of primitive shapes using brain–computer interfaces

Evaluating If Children Can Use Simple Brain Computer Interfaces

Evaluation of SSVEP as passive feedback for improving the performance of brain machine interfaces

Experimental Art with Brain Controlled Interface

Functional State Assessment of an Athlete by Means of the Brain-Computer Interface Multimodal Metrics

Human Mind Control of Rat Cyborg’s Continuous Locomotion with Wireless Brain-to-Brain Interface

Performance Assessment of a Custom, Portable, and Low-Cost Brain-Computer Interface Platform

The Berlin brain-computer interface: progress beyond communication and control

Polysomnography

A Comparison of Polysomnography and a Portable Home Sleep Study in the Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

A Multisite Randomized Trial of Portable Sleep Studies and Positive Airway Pressure Autotitration Versus Laboratory-Based Polysomnography for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The HomePAP Study

Comparison of a single-channel EEG sleep study to polysomnography

Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in the Home: The Role of Portable Sleep Apnea Recording

Full Polysomnography in the Home

Portable Computerized Polysomnography in Attended and Unattended Settings

Portable monitoring for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea

Portable Recording in the Assessment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Validation a Portable Monitoring Device for Sleep Apnea Diagnosis in a Population Based Cohort Using Synchronized Home Polysomnography

Sleep Staging

A decision support system for automatic sleep staging from EEG signals using tunable Q-factor wavelet transform and spectral features

Analysis and automatic identification of sleep stages using higher order spectra

An ensemble system for automatic sleep stage classification using single channel EEG signal

A rule-based automatic sleep staging method

Automatic Stage Scoring of Single-Channel Sleep EEG by Using Multiscale Entropy and Autoregressive Models

Reliability of Rapid Clinical Staging of All Night Sleep EEG

Sleep staging automaton based on the theory of evidence

EEG

Altered Gamma Oscillations during Motor Control in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

A Low-Cost Point-of-Care Testing System for Psychomotor Symptoms of Depression Affecting Standing Balance

Analysis of a commercial EEG device for the control of a robot arm

An integrative approach to analyze EEG signals and human brain dynamics in different cognitive states

Automatic detection of EEG artefacts arising from head movements using EEG and gyroscope signals

Characterizing population EEG dynamics throughout adulthood

Choice modeling and the brain: A study on the Electroencephalogram (EEG) of preferences

Choosing MUSE: Validation of a Low-Cost, Portable EEG System for ERP Research

Consumer neuroscience: Assessing the brain response to marketing stimuli using electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye tracking

Classification of EEG Signals Based on Autoregressive Model and Wavelet Packet Decomposition

Development of a Mobile EEG-Based Feature Extraction and Classification System for Biometric Authentication

Evaluation of different EEG acquisition systems concerning their suitability for building a brain–computer interface: case studies

EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: a review and analysis

EEG alpha rhythm detection on a portable device

Electroencephalographic changes using virtual reality program: technical note

Estimation of Eye Closure Degree Using EEG Sensors and Its Application in Driver Drowsiness Detection

How about taking a low‐cost, small, and wireless EEG for a walk?

Introducing Neuroberry, a platform for pervasive EEG signaling in the IoT domain

Mental State Recognition via Wearable EEG

Music Emotion Capture: sonifying emotions in EEG data

NeuroPhone: Brain-Mobile Phone Interface using a Wireless EEG Headset

Peak alpha frequency: an electroencephalographic measure of cognitive preparedness

Performance characterization of self-calibrating protocols for wearable EEG applications

Portable EEG Recording System for BCI Application

P-300 Rhythm Detection Using ANFIS Algorithm and Wavelet Feature Extraction in EEG Signals

Sensitivity of EEG upper alpha activity to cognitive and affective creativity interventions

Self-Calibrating Protocols Enhance Wearable EEG Diagnostics and Consumer Applications

Single-Trial Cognitive Stress Classification Using Portable Wireless Electroencephalography

Smartphones Get Emotional: Mind Reading Images and Reconstructing the Neural Sources

Surprising Prevalence of Electroencephalogram Brain–Computer Interface to Internet of Things

Towards the bio-personalization of music recommendation systems: A single-sensor EEG biomarker of subjective music preference

Using Wireless EEG Signals to Assess Memory Workload in then-Back Task

Validation of a smartphone-based EEG among people with epilepsy: A prospective study

Vigilance lapse identification using sparse EEG electrode arrays

Neurofeedback

Acquisition, Analysis and Visualization of Data from Physiological Sensors for Biofeedback Applications

Alpha Suppression and Symmetry Training for Generalized Anxiety Symptoms

Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms

Attentional and affective consequences of technology supported mindfulness training: a randomised, active control, efficacy trial

EEG neurofeedback treatments in children with ADHD: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

EEG Neurofeedback: A Brief Overview and an Example of Peak Alpha Frequency Training for Cognitive Enhancement in the Elderly

Effects of an EEG biofeedback protocol on a mixed substance abusing population

Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety

In-School Neurofeedback Training for ADHD: Sustained Improvements From a Randomized Control Trial

‘My Virtual Dream’: Collective Neurofeedback in an Immersive Art Environment

Neurofeedback training of EEG alpha rhythm enhances episodic and working memory

Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety

Real-Time Brain Mapping for Treating Substance Abuse using Neurofeedback

Sustained effects of neurofeedback in ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The Brain Matters: A 3D Real-Time Visualization to Examine Brain Source Activation Leveraging Neurofeedback

The Relation Between Memory Improvement and QEEG Changes in Three Clinical Groups as a Result of EEG Biofeedback Treatment

The Treatment of Addictive Disorders by Brain Wave Biofeedback: A Review and Suggestions for Future Research

Medicine – Intensive Care

Abnormal Sleep/Wake Cycles and the Effect of Environmental Noise on Sleep Disruption in the Intensive Care Unit

Bispectral analysis of electroencephalogram signals during recovery from coma: Preliminary findings

Consciousness monitoring in ventilated patients: bispectral EEG monitors arousal not delirium

Continuous EEG Monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit: Technical and Staffing Considerations

Daytime intensive monitoring Comparison with prolonged intensive and ambulatory monitoring

Detection of electrographic seizures with continuous EEG monitoring in critically ill patients

Monitoring Cerebral Function: Clinical Experience with New Device for Continuous Recording of Electrical Activity of Brain

Monitorización Electroencefalográfica Continua en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos

Single-channel amplitude integrated EEG recording for the identification of epileptic seizures by nonexpert physicians in the adult acute care setting

The Current State of Telemonitoring: A Comment on the Literature

Wireless sensor and data transmission needs and technologies for patient monitoring in the operating room and intensive care unit